Fundamentals: No. 1f - Separation of Church and State
Liberal Myth Number 6:  The First Amendment prohibits any display of religious sentiment in
publicly owned or managed venues.
The First Amendment is one of the four or five most misused sections of the Constitution.  Instead of
preventing religious oppression by the federal government as intended, it is used by the left to oppress
Christianity at the state and local levels.  Sure, no one has been burned at the stake recently, but that is
not how the left works.  Instead, it does its work through conditioning.  Taking away just enough freedom
to engender mild protest, it then pauses and allows the population to become accustomed to life without
the lost liberty.  As soon as it does, a little more is taken.  The process is repeated one step at a time
until one day we realize that all our liberty is gone.

A major part of the process is propaganda and half-truths spread through the media and the education
system.  Given enough time, the lie becomes truth and meanings are reversed.  Freedom of religion
becomes freedom
from religion.  Free speech becomes hate speech.  Patriotism becomes
obstructionism and patriots become dangerous radicals.  To combat these perversions of our
Constitution and founding principles it is important that we get back to the basics.

The Bill of Rights is often treated as a single unit much like
Article I, Section 8, in the body of the
Constitution.  It is not.  Section 8 is a single, compound sentence, listing the unique powers delegated to
the Congress--- separated only by semicolons, as noted by James Madison in Federalist Number 41.
The Bill of Rights consists of ten stand-alone amendments, each dealing with a different subject. It went
through four revisions before being ratified by the states.

As proposed by James Madison to Congress the various amendments were intended to be incorporated
into the body of the Constitution.  What eventually became the First Amendment was, in Madison’s
proposal, a part of his proposed Fourth Amendment.

    “Fourthly.  That in article 1st, section 9, between clauses 3 and 4, be inserted these clauses, to
    wit:  ‘The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall
    any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any
    manner, or in any pretext, infringed.”

    “The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their
    sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of Liberty, shall be
    inviolable.”

    “The people shall not be restrained from peaceably assembling and consulting for their common
    good; nor from applying to the Legislature by petitions, or remonstrances, for redress of their
    grievances….” *

It was reported out by the House Select Committee on July 28, 1789 as,

    “No religion shall be established by law, nor shall the equal rights of conscience be infringed”

    “The freedom of speech, and of the press, and the right of the people peaceably to assemble and
    consult for their common good, and to apply to the government for redress of grievances, shall
    not be infringed.” *

It was passed by the House of Representatives on August 24, 1789 as the third and fourth
amendments.  

    The Third Amendment read, “Congress shall make no law establishing religion or prohibiting the
    free exercise thereof, nor shall the rights of Conscience by infringed.” *

The Fourth Amendment contained the clauses dealing with speech, the press and assembly.

The Senate combined the third and fourth amendments of the House version and passed them as the
Third Amendment:

    “Congress shall make no law establishing articles of faith, or a mode of worship, or prohibiting the
    free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the
    people peaceably to assemble, and to petition to the government for a redress of grievances.” *

It was revised further, to its present form, before being proposed to the States by Congress as the Third
Amendment.

    “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
    exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people to
    peaceably assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” *

* Quotes from Richard Labunski, James Madison and the struggle for the Bill of Rights (Oxford
University Press, 2006)

The Bill of Rights was proposed to the states as twelve separate amendments.  The first two were not
ratified, making the Amendment dealing with the freedom of religion, speech, press and assembly the
first Amendment.  What is important to note here is that the First Amendment applies only to Congress,
it does not apply to the states.  

Had it been submitted to the states and ratified as reported out by the House Committee, the restrictions
would also be binding on the states under
Article VI, clause 2.  The phrase “Congress shall make no
law”, added by the House and carried through the Senate and the final version, limit’s the restriction to
Congress only.  However, most states have similar protections in their State Constitution.  The Illinois
State Constitution, for example, reads, in part;
“…No person shall be required to attend or support any
ministry or place of worship against his consent, nor shall any preference be given by law to any
religious denomination or mode of worship….”

A study of the First Amendment in its historical context reveals several important facts concerning its
scope and purpose.  First, its purpose was to prevent the establishment of a national religion as
concisely expressed in Madison’s proposal and carried through all the various versions to ratification.  
Although the Madison version and the Senate version contained more detailed specifics, all
unquestionably continue the same intent.  A second purpose was to prevent the federal government’s
sanctioning of religious persecution.  

An unspecified additional consequence of the Amendment was to prohibit the use of federal tax monies
to fund church activities and pay the salaries of clergy.  The fact that these practices were continued in
several of the states long after the ratification of the First Amendment is an additional indication that its
scope was limited to the federal government.  In effect, the First Amendment is a reaffirmation of
Hamilton’s argument in Federalist Number 81 that the federal government has no powers that would
allow it to affect the freedoms of religion, speech or press in any way.  

The famous correspondence between the Association of Baptist Churches in Danbury, Connecticut and
Thomas Jefferson in 1801 is proof that the oppression of certain denominations was still being practiced
in Connecticut a full ten years after ratification of the First Amendment.  The famous “wall of separation
between church and state” contained in Jefferson’s reply was intended only to reassure the Danbury
Baptists that the federal government could not meddle in religious affairs as they feared. The text of the
Danbury letter and Jefferson’s reply along with comments can be found
here.

The First Amendment and the freedom of religion clauses in state constitutions are intended to protect
religious observances and practices from oppression by government. They were never intended to
protect individual citizens from incidental exposure to religious precepts through overhearing religious
speech or observing religious symbols or actions in public places.  Furthermore, unless prohibited by
state constitutions, states and municipalities may, by statute or local custom, permit religious symbols or
expression on publicly owned properties, Bible reading and/or prayer in public schools, Christmas
displays, Christmas pageants, et cetera, without interference by the federal government, under the
authority of the Tenth Amendment.
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