We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to
ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I. Legislative Branch

Section. 1.  Legislature

 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a
Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.  House of Representatives

 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the
several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous
Branch of the State Legislature.

1.2.2  No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven
Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be

1.2.3  Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within
this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free
Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
 Changed by Section 2, 14th Amendment

1.2.4  The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United
States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.

1.2.5  The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at
Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to
choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New
Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and
Georgia three.

1.2.8  When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of
Election to fill such Vacancies.

1.2.9  The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of

Section. 3.  Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature
thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.   
 Changed by Seventeenth Amendment

1.3.2  Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as
may be into three Classes.

1.3.3  The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second
Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may
be chosen every second Year;

1.3.4  and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the
Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such
Changed by Seventeenth Amendment

1.3.5  No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a
Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

1.3.6  The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be
equally divided.

1.3.7  The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice
President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

1.3.8  The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on
Oath or Affirmation.

1.3.9  When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside:

1.3.10  And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

1.3.11  Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to
hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States:

1.3.12  but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment,
according to Law.

Section. 4.  Election of Representatives and Senators

 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in
each State by the Legislature thereof;

1.4.2  but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing

1.4.3  The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in
December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Changed by Section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment

Section. 5.  Congressional Policy

 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of
each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business;

1.5.2  but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent
Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

1.5.3  Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with
the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

1.5.4  Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts
as may in their Judgment require Secrecy;

1.5.6  and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those
Present, be entered on the Journal.

1.5.7  Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than
three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6.  Congressional Compensation, Privileges and Restrictions

 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law,
and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.

1.6.2  They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their
Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same;

1.6.3  and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

1.6.4  No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office
under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been
increased during such time;

1.6.5  and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his
Continuance in Office.

Section. 7.  Bills, Voting, Vetoes

 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives;

1.7.2  but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

1.7.3  Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law,
be presented to the President of the United States:

1.7.4  If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

1.7.5  If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the
Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it
shall become a Law.

1.7.6  But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the
Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.

1.7.7  If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been
presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their
Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

1.7.8  Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be
necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before
the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8.  Enumerated Powers of Congress

 The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and
provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States;

1.8.2  but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

1.8.3  To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

1.8.4  To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

1.8.5  To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the
United States;

1.8.6  To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

1.8.7  To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

1.8.8  To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

1.8.9  To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the
exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

1.8.10  To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

1.8.11  To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of

1.8.12  To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and

1.8.13  To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two

1.8.14  To provide and maintain a Navy;

1.8.15  To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

1.8.16  To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel

1.8.17  To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such part of them as may be
employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and
the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

1.8.18  To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as
may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the
United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;–And

1.8.19  To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all
other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section. 9.  Congressional Restrictions

 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall
not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be
imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

1.9.2  The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or
Invasion the public Safety may require it.

1.9.3  No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

1.9.4  No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before
directed to be taken.  
See Sixteenth Amendment

1.9.5  No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

1.9.6  No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of
another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

1.9.7  No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

1.9.8  No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust
under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section. 10.  Limits on State Powers

 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation;

1.10.2  grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal;

1.10.3  coin Money; emit Bills of Credit;

1.10.4  make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts;

1.10.5  pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of

1.10.6  No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except
what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws:

1.10.7  and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the
Treasury of the United States;

1.10.8  and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

1.10.9  No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time
of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless
actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.  
Article. II. Executive Branch

Article II:  Executive Branch

Section. 1.  Executive Powers, Electoral College, Election of President and Vice President

 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.

2.1.2  He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same
Term, be elected, as follows:

2.1.3  Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the
whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress:

2.1.4  but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be
appointed an Elector.

2.1.5  The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall
not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.

2.1.6  And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each;

2.1.7  which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States,
directed to the President of the Senate.

2.1.8  The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted.

2.1.9  The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the
whole Number of Electors appointed;

2.1.10  and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President;

2.1.11  and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner
choose the President.

2.1.12  But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having
one Vote;

2.1.13  A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of
all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.

2.1.14  In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors
shall be the Vice President.

2.1.15  But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the
Vice President.
Changed by Twelfth Amendment

2.1.16  The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their

2.1.17  which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

2.1.18  No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President;

2.1.19  neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and
been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

2.1.20  In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the
Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law
provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring
what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a
President shall be elected.
Changed by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment

2.1.21  The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased
nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any
other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

2.1.22  Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–”I do solemnly
swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability,
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section. 2.  Presidential Powers

 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the
several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States;

2.2.2   he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any
Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for
Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2.2.3  He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of
the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall
appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the
United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law:

2.2.4  but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President
alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

2.2.5  The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by
granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3.  Presidential Duties

 He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;

2.3.2  he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement
between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper;

2.3.3  he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers;

2.3.4  he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section. 4.  Removal from Office

  The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on
Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III. Judicial Branch

Section. 1.  Judicial Power, Judicial Tenure

 The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.

3.1.2  The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at
stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in

Section. 2.  Extent of Judicial Powers

 The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the
United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;

3.2.2  –to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;

3.2.3  –to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;

3.2.4  –to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;

3.2.5  –to Controversies between two or more States;

3.2.6  – between a State and Citizens of another State; Changed by Eleventh Amendment

3.2.7  – between Citizens of different States;

3.2.8  –between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the
Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
Changed by Eleventh Amendment

3.2.9  In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party,
the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.

3.2.10  In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3.2.11  The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury;

3.2.12  and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed;

3.2.13  but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law
have directed.

Section. 3.  Definition and Penalty for Treason

 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies,
giving them Aid and Comfort.

3.3.2  No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on
Confession in open Court.

3.3.3  The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work
Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.

Article. IV. Equality of States

Section. 1.  Full Faith and Credit

 Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every
other State.

4.1.2  And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall
be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2. Privileges, Immunities, Extradition

 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

4.2.2  A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in
another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

4.2.3  No Person held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in
Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labor, but shall be delivered up on
Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due.  
Changed by Thirteenth Amendment

Section. 3.  New States, Territories

 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;

4.3.2  but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State;

4.3.3  nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the
Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

4.3.4  The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the
Territory or other Property belonging to the United States;

4.3.5  and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any
particular State.

Section. 4.  Guarantee of Republicanism

 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government,

4.4.2  and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when
the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

Article. V:  Procedures for Amending Constitution

5.0.1  The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this
Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution,
when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as
the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress;

5.0.2  Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in
any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth
Section of the first Article;

5.0.3  and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI:  Supremacy of the Constitution

6.0.1  All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid
against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

6.0.2  This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof;

6.0.3  and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law
of the Land;

6.0.4  and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the
Contrary notwithstanding.

6.0.5  The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all
executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or
Affirmation, to support this Constitution;

6.0.6  but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII:  Ratification of the Constitution

7.0.1  The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution
between the States so ratifying the Same.

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the
Twelfth. In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

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