One of the defining characteristics of the American government that makes it unique among the governments of the world is
the mixture of federalism and nationalism in its Constitution.  The carefully crafted document has been used by advocates of
both federalism and nationalism to support their agendas throughout our history. At the time of its drafting and later during
the debate over its ratification there were two schools of thought concerning the best type of government for the new nation.
The federalists believed that it should have a strong central government with subordinate state governments. The anti-
federalists feared that a dominant central government would lead to eventual tyranny and they were not willing to give up the
state sovereignty favored by most citizens. The task for the framers was to devise a government with enough authority to
function effectively while protecting the ability of the various states to run their own affairs as sovereign states.

The compromise arrived at was a Constitution granting the necessary powers to the central government for carrying out
functions of a national nature such as, national defense, issuing money and certain other functions that could not be
adequately performed by the individual states and limiting the federal government to the specific powers delegated to it. Every
American owes it to themselves, their families and their fellow citizens, to become familiar with the powers and limitations
provided for in the Constitution and their underlying principles.

The U.S. Constitution has served as a blueprint for the most successful government the world has ever known. For over a
hundred years, the nation grew and prospered according to its precepts. In the times when we have strayed from its
regulations or denied the principles on which it is based we have found ourselves mired in discord and confusion. Most, if
not all the major domestic crises faced by America since its founding could have been avoided had the leaders at the time,
followed the precepts of our founding documents.

To appreciate fully the wisdom of the Founder’s plan it is necessary to view it as a single document consisting of three parts.
The Declaration of Independence gives the justification for our existence as a separate and independent people and the
principles to enable us to govern ourselves successfully. (2) The
Constitution presents the plan for governing embodying
those principles, strengthening the whole while protecting the liberty and independence of all its parts. (3) The
Bill of Rights
clarifies and amplifies the intent of the Founders for particular elements of the plan. These three parts of the Founder’s plan,
collectively represent the most perfect and complete plan of government ever devised.

Since its inception in March, 1789 there have been many attempts to improve on the original as our political leaders moved
away from its direction and chafed at the restrictions the plan placed on their ambitions. In each attempt to “update” the
original, history has shown the effort to be of dubious benefit, with the unintended consequences sometimes far outweighing
the intended improvements. There have been seventeen Amendments to the Constitution since the ratification of the Bill of
Rights. Most of those have produced marginal benefits with negligible damage to the original plan. Others have been used by
revisionists to alter drastically the original plan, to the detriment of the American people and liberty, Amendments 12, 14, 16
and 17, are good examples.

The unity, cohesiveness, and durability of the Founder’s plan is even more remarkable when we consider the diversity of
personalities, occupations, education, and interests of the hundreds of people who contributed to its formulation, including
the Second Continental Congress, the Philadelphia Convention, and thirteen State Ratifying Conventions. One explanation can
be found in the closing paragraph of the Declaration of Independence,
“a firm reliance on the protection of Divine
. This phrase is much more than a rhetorical device to add solemnity to the document. It expresses the heartfelt
faith of virtually all the Founding Fathers.

In our desire to view ourselves as a secular society ruled by a secular government, we overlook and often deny the most
fundamental attribute of our national character; we are a religious people. As already noted, according to a 2007 study by the
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 88.9% of all American Adults consider themselves “religious”. 78.4% of all
American Adults identify themselves as Christian.

It is fashionable in today’s secular America to discount the religious influence in the founding of America by pointing out
inconsistencies between the views of many of the more prominent Founders and what we might consider to be a proper
Christian worldview. In doing so, we deny ourselves some of the most valuable lessons of history. That is not to say that all
the Founding Fathers would be considered as orthodox Christians by every doctrinal standard today.

There was a wide variety of beliefs then, just as there are now. The Framers that crafted our founding documents were
members of Quaker, Anglican, Baptist, Congregationalist, and other Christian disciplines, and yet, there were certain beliefs
they all held in common. Two of the most important religious characteristics of the Founders were their reverence for the
Holy Bible and their faith in the Providence of God. They perhaps possessed the highest degree of Bible literacy of any group
of political leaders before or since. The political speech of that era is replete with biblical references.

It is popular for historians to point to the writers of the Enlightenment Era such as John Locke or Montesquieu as providing
the guiding principles behind our founding documents. The truth is that political writings of the time contain far more
references to Biblical sources than to Enlightenment sources. In fact, Professor Daniel Dreisbach, an historian with American
University claims there are more references to the book of Deuteronomy alone, found in the political writings of the
Founders, than all of the Enlightenment writers combined. The Bible formed such a large part of the Founders thinking that
they routinely referenced it in their speeches and correspondence without attribution, assuming that their audience would
automatically recognize the reference. A classic example of this can be found in a speech by Benjamin Franklin to the
Philadelphia Convention on June 28, 1787.

    “…[T]he longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth — that God Governs in the affairs of men. And
    if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We
    have been assured, Sir, in the sacred writings, that ‘except the Lord build the House they labor in vain that build it.’ I
    firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no
    better, than the Builders of Babel: We shall be divided by our little partial local interests; our projects will be
    confounded, and we ourselves shall become a reproach and bye word down to future ages.”

In this short paragraph, there are at least three distinct biblical references, Psalm, 127, Matthew 10:29, and Genesis 11:8-10.
Franklin also refers here, to the Providence of God in the “affairs of men”, as does George Washington in a letter to Brig.
General Thomas Nelson in August 1788,

    “The Hand of Providence has been so conspicuous in all this, that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith,
    and more than wicked, that has not gratitude enough to acknowledge his obligations.”
    ~George Washington

This was written just before the Presidential election of 1788 and after the completion of the Constitution. It is evident that he
was referring to the Divine Hand of God in the Revolutionary War and the events following, including the Confederation and
the outcome of the Philadelphia Convention. James Madison had the same thoughts in mind when he wrote Federalist 37. In
discussing the difficulties of the Convention in reconciling the differing ideas, opinions and interests of so diverse a group,
Madison wrote,

    “It is impossible for any man of candor to reflect on this circumstance without partaking of the astonishment. It is
    impossible for the man of pious reflection not to perceive in it a finger of that Almighty hand which has been so
    frequently and signally extended to our relief in the critical stages of the revolution.” ~James Madison

It is difficult to disagree with Washington and Madison in their conclusions that the plan of government set forth in our
founding documents bears clear evidence of the providence of God in its creation. Most Americans today have an instinctive,
almost religious reverence for our founding documents, even those with little or no knowledge of their contents. It is
important, however, to distinguish between Divine Providence as understood by the founders and the inspiration of scriptures
as understood by Christians since the Reformation.

In inspiration, God deals with individuals directly so that each book of the Bible has a single author. With Providence, God
works “behind the scenes:” so to speak, using multitudes of people and events, often seemingly unrelated, to bring about His
will. Providence can only be seen through the lens of hindsight. It is only through observing the formation and progress of
our nation during our four-hundred year history, the problems it has faced and the consequences of the decisions it has made
in confronting those problems, that we can appreciate the Providence of God and that we can confidently declare our
founding documents to be “America’s Sacred Texts”.
E-mail address
Philosophy of
Socialism in America

"The struggle of History is not
between the bourgeoisie and the
proletariat; it is between government
and the governed."

Jerry McDaniel
Purchase a book for your
library or as a gift
Philosophy of Evil
Socialism In America
By Jerry McDaniel
Chapter 14
America's Sacred Texts
The Illinois Conservative