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Constitutional Amendments  11 through 27

Amendment XI: Suits against states.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the
United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any
Foreign State.

Proposal and Ratification
The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Third Congress, on the 4th of March 1794; and was declared in a message from the
President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been ratified by the legislatures of
three-fourths of the States.

Amendment XII: Election of executive branch.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of
whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the
person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall,
in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then
be counted;--The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then
from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President,
the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the
President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum
for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the
states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the
Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the
President.3 --The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President,
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the
purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall
be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to
that of Vice-President of the United States.

Proposal and Ratification
The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several
States by the Eighth Congress, on the 9th of December, 1803, in lieu of the original third paragraph of the first
section of the second article; and was declared in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of
September, 1804, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 13 of the 17 States.  

Amendment XIII: Prohibition of slavery

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st day of January, 1865, and was declared, in a
proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to have been ratified by the
legislatures of twenty-seven of the thirty-six States.

Amendment XIV: Privileges or immunities, due process, elections and
debt.

Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the
United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge
the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws.

Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers,
counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at
any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied
to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States,
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein
shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of
male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or
hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an
oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature,
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of
pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But
neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but
all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Proposal and Ratification
The fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Thirty-ninth Congress, on the 13th of June, 1866. It was declared, in a certificate of the
Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to have been ratified by the legislatures of 28 of the 37 States.

Amendment XV: Race and the right to vote.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
The fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Fortieth Congress, on the 26th of February, 1869, and was declared, in a proclamation
of the Secretary of State, dated March 30, 1870, to have been ratified by the legislatures of twenty-nine of the
thirty-seven States.

Amendment XVI: Income tax.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without
apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Proposal and Ratification
The sixteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th of July, 1909, and was declared, in a proclamation of the
Secretary of State, dated the 25th of February, 1913, to have been ratified by 36 of the 48 States.  

Amendment XVII: Senator election and number.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people
thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State
shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the
executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the
legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any
Senator chosen before it
becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Proposal and Ratification
The seventeenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 13th of May, 1912, and was declared, in a proclamation of
the Secretary of State, dated the 31st of May, 1913, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48
States Ratification was completed on April 8, 1913.

Amendment XVIII: Prohibition on sale of alcohol.

Section 1.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors
within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited

Section 2.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
submission hereof to the States by the Congress. Proposal and Ratification The eighteenth amendment to the
Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Sixty-fifth
Congress, on the 18th of December, 1917, and was declared, in a proclamation of the Secretary of State,
dated the 29th of January, 1919, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States

Amendment XIX: Sex and the right to vote.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
The nineteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the
several States by the Sixty-sixth Congress, on the 4th of June, 1919, and was declared, in a proclamation of
the Secretary of State, dated the 26th of August, 1920, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48
States.

Amendment XX: "Lame duck" session of Congress eliminated.

Section 1.
The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of
Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have
ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day
of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice
President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the
beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall
act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act
as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly
until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of
Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for
the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the
right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of his article.

Section 6.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Proposal and Ratification
The twentieth amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the legislatures of the several states by the
Seventy-Second Congress, on the 2d day of March, 1932, and was declared, in a proclamation by the
Secretary of State, dated on the 6th day of February, 1933, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of
the 48 States.

Amendment XXI: Repeal of Article XVIII.

Section 1.
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or
use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Proposal and Ratification
The twenty-first amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several states by the Seventy-Second
Congress, on the 20th day of February, 1933, and was declared, in a proclamation by the Secretary of State,
dated on the 5th day of December, 1933, to have been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. Ratified) by South
Carolina, on December 4, 1933.

Amendment XXII: Limit of Presidential terms.

Section 1.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the
office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was
elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply
to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not
prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within
which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President
during the remainder of such term.

Section 2.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the
States by the Congress.

Proposal and Ratification
This amendment was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eightieth Congress on Mar. 21,
1947 by House Joint Res. No. 27, and was declared by the Administrator of General Services, on Mar. 1, 1951,
to have been ratified by the legislatures of 36 of the 48 States. Certification of Validity

Amendment XXIII: Election rules for the District of Columbia

Section 1.
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the
Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and
Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than
the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be
considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a
State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of
amendment.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-sixth Congress on June 17, 1960 and was declared by the
Administrator of General Services on Apr. 3, 1961, to have been ratified by 38 of the 50  

Amendment XXIV: Taxes and the right to vote.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice
President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-seventh Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 29, which was
approved by the Senate on Mar. 27, 1962, and by the House of Representatives on Aug. 27, 1962. It was
declared by the Administrator of General Services on Feb. 4, 1964, to have been ratified by the legislatures of
38 of the 50 States.

Amendment XXV: Rules of Presidential succession.

Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall
become President.

Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President
who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office,
and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the
office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the
House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties
of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department
6 or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the
issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one
days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after
Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable
to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as
Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Proposal and Ratification
This amendment was proposed by the Eighty-ninth Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 1, which was
approved by the Senate on Feb. 19, 1965, and by the House of Representatives, in amended form, on Apr.
13, 1965. The House of Representatives agreed to a Conference Report on June 30, 1965, and the Senate
agreed to the Conference Report on July 6, 1965. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services, on
Feb. 23, 1967, to have been ratified by the legislatures of 39 of the 50 States.

Amendment XXVI: Age and the right to vote.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Proposal and Ratification
This amendment was proposed by the Ninety-second Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 7, which was
approved by the Senate on Mar. 10, 1971, and by the House of Representatives on Mar. 23, 1971. It was
declared by the Administrator of General Services on July 5, 1971, to have been ratified by the legislatures of
39 of the 50 States.

Amendment XXVII: Pay raises and Congress.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect,until
an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Proposal and Ratification This amendment, being the second of twelve articles proposed by the First Congress
on Sept. 25, 1789, was declared by the Archivist of the United States on May 18, 1992, to have been ratified
by the legislatures of 40 of the 50 States.
The Illinois Conservative