Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention
By James Madison
May 28, 1787
Monday May 28, 1787

From Massachusetts Nathan Gorham & Caleb Strong. From Connecticut Oliver Elseworth. From Delaware, Gunning
Bedford. From Maryland James McHenry. From Pennsylvania, Benjamin Franklin, George Clymer, Thomas Mifflin and Jared
Ingersol took their seats.

Mr. WYTHE from the Committee for preparing rules made a report which employed the deliberations of this day.

Mr. KING objected to one of the rules in the Report authorizing any member to call for the yeas and nays and have them
entered on the minutes. He urged that as the acts of the Convention were not to bind the Constituents, it was unnecessary to
exhibit this evidence of the votes; and improper as changes of opinion would be frequent in the course of the business and
would fill the minutes with contradictions.

Col. MASON seconded the objection; adding that such a record of the opinions of members would be an obstacle to a
change of them on conviction; and in case of its being hereafter promulgated must furnish handles to the adversaries of the
Result of the Meeting. The proposed rule was rejected nem. contradicente.

The standing rules agreed to were as follow:

Viz. A House to do business shall consist of the Deputies of not less than seven States; and all questions shall be decided by
the greater number of these which shall be fully represented: but a less number than seven may adjourn from day to day.
Immediately after the President shall have taken the chair, and the members their seats, the minutes of the preceding day shall
be read by the Secretary.

Every member, rising to speak, shall address the President; and whilst he shall be speaking, none shall pass between them,
or hold discourse with another, or read a book, pamphlet or paper, printed or manuscript-and of two members rising at the
same time, the President shall name him who shall be first heard.

A member shall not speak oftener than twice, without special leave, upon the same question; and not the second time, before
every other, who had been silent, shall have been heard, if he choose to speak upon the subject.

A motion made and seconded, shall be repeated, and if written, as it shall be when any member shall so require, read aloud
by the Secretary, before it shall be debated; and may be withdrawn at any time, before the vote upon it shall have been
declared.

Orders of the day shall be read next after the minutes, and either discussed or postponed, before any other business shall be
introduced.

When a debate shall arise upon a question, no motion, other than to amend the question, to commit it, or to postpone the
debate shall be received. [A question which is complicated, shall, at the request of any member, be divided, and put separately
on the propositions, of which it is compounded.

The determination of a question, although fully debated, shall be postponed, if the deputies of any State desire it until the
next day.

A writing which contains any matter brought on to be considered, shall be read once throughout for information, then by
paragraphs to be debated, and again, with the amendments, if any, made on the second reading; and afterwards, the question
shall be put on the whole, amended, or approved in its original form, as the case shall be.

Committees shall be appointed by ballot; and the members who have the greatest number of ballots, although not a majority
of the votes present, shall be the Committee- When two or more members have an equal number of votes, the member
standing first on the list in the order of taking down the ballots, shall be preferred.

A member may be called to order by any other member, as well as by the President; and may be allowed to explain his
conduct or expressions supposed to be reprehensible.- And all questions of order shall be decided by the President without
appeal or debate.

Upon a question to adjourn for the day, which may be made at any time, if it be seconded, the question shall be put without
a debate. When the House shall adjourn, every member shall stand in his place, until the President pass him.  

A letter from sundry persons of the State of Rhode Island addressed to the Honorable, The Chairman of the General
Convention was presented to the Chair by Mr. Govurneur  Morris, and being read, was ordered to lie on the table for further
consideration.

Mr. BUTLER moved that the House provide against interruption of business by absence of members, and against licentious
publications of their proceedings--to which was added by-Mr. Spaight--a motion to provide that on the one hand the House
might not be precluded by a vote upon any question, from revising the subject matter of it when they see cause, nor, on the
other hand, be led too hastily to rescind a decision, which was the result of mature discussion. - Whereupon it was ordered
that these motions be referred to the consideration of the Committee appointed to draw up the standing rules and that the
Committee make report thereon.

Adjourned till tomorrow 10. O’clock.
The Illinois Conservative