Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention
By James Madison
August 6, 1787
Tuesday August 6, 1787

IN CONVENTION

Mr. John Francis Mercer from Maryland took his seat.

Mr. RUTLIDGE delivered in the Report of the Committee of detail as follows: a printed copy being at the same time furnished
to each member:

"We the people of the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, do ordain,
declare, and establish the following Constitution for the Government of Ourselves and our Posterity.

ARTICLE I

The stile of the Government shall be, "The United States of America"

ARTICLE II

The Government shall consist of supreme legislative, executive; and judicial powers.

ARTICLE III

The legislative power shall be vested in a Congress, to consist of two separate and distinct bodies of men, a House of
Representatives and a Senate; each of which shall in all cases have a negative on the other. The Legislature shall meet on the
first Monday in December every year.

ARTICLE IV

Sect. 1
. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen every second year, by the people of the several States
comprehended within this Union. The qualifications of the electors shall be the same, from time to time, as those of the
electors in the several States, of the most numerous branch of their own legislatures.

Sect. 2. Every member of the House of Representatives shall be of the age of twenty five years at least; shall have been a
citizen in the United States for at least three years before his election; and shall be, at the time of his election, a resident of the
State in which he shall be chosen.

Sect. 3. The House of Representatives shall, at its first formation, and until the number of citizens and inhabitants shall be
taken in the manner herein after described, consist of sixty five Members, of whom three shall be chosen in New-Hampshire,
eight in Massachusetts, one in Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, five in Connecticut, six in New-York, four in New-
Jersey, eight in Pennsylvania, one in Delaware, six in Maryland, ten in Virginia, five in North- Carolina, five in South-Carolina,
and three in Georgia.

Sect. 4. As the proportions of numbers in different States will alter from time to time; as some of the States may hereafter be
divided; as others may be enlarged by addition of territory; as two or more States may be united; as new States will be erected
within the limits of the United States, the Legislature shall, in each of these cases, regulate the number of representatives by
the number of inhabitants, according to the provisions herein after made, at the rate of one for every forty thousand.

Sect. 5. All bills for raising or appropriating money, and for fixing the salaries of the officers of Government, shall originate in
the House of Representatives, and shall not be altered or amended by the Senate. No money shall be drawn from the Public
Treasury, but in pursuance of appropriations that shall originate in the House of Representatives.

Sect. 6. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment. It shall choose its Speaker and other
officers.

Sect. 7. Vacancies in the House of Representatives shall be supplied by writs of election from the executive authority of the
State in the representation from which it shall happen.

ARTICLE V

Sect. 1.
The Senate of the United States shall be chosen by the Legislatures of the several States. Each Legislature shall
choose two members. Vacancies may be supplied by the Executive until the next meeting of the Legislature. Each member
shall have one vote.

Sect. 2. The Senators shall be chosen for six years; but immediately after the first election they shall be divided, by lot, into
three classes, as nearly as may be, numbered one, two and three. The seats of the members of the first class shall be vacated
at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, of the third class at the expiration
of the sixth year, so that a third part of the members may be chosen every second year.

Sect. 3. Every member of the Senate shall be of the age of thirty years at least; shall have been a citizen in the United States
for at least four years before his election; and shall be, at the time of his election, a resident of the State for which he shall be
chosen.

Sect. 4. The Senate shall choose its own President and other officers.

ARTICLE  VI

Sect. 1.
The times and places and manner of holding the elections of the members of each House shall be prescribed by the
Legislature of each State; but their provisions concerning them may, at any time be altered by the Legislature of the United
States.

Sect. 2. The Legislature of the United States shall have authority to establish such uniform qualifications of the members of
each House, with regard to property, as to the said Legislature shall seem expedient.

Sect. 3. In each House a majority of the members shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn
from day to day.

Sect. 4. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members.

Sect. 5. Freedom of speech and debate in the Legislature shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court or place out of the
Legislature; and the members of each House shall, in all cases, except treason felony and breach of the peace, be privileged
from arrest during their attendance at Congress, and in going to and returning from it.

Sect. 6. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings; may punish its members for disorderly behavior; and may
expel a member.

Sect. 7. The House of Representatives, and the Senate, when it shall be acting in a legislative capacity, shall keep a journal of
their proceedings, and shall, from time to time, publish them: and the yeas and nays of the members of each House, on any
question, shall at the desire of one-fifth part of the members present, be entered on the journal.

Sect. 8. Neither House, without the consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than
that at which the two Houses are sitting. But this regulation shall not extend to the Senate, when it shall exercise the powers
mentioned in the ____ article.

Sect. 9. The members of each House shall be ineligible to, and incapable of holding any office under the authority of the
United States, during the time for which they shall respectively be elected: and the members of the Senate shall be ineligible to,
and incapable of holding any such office for one year afterwards.

Sect. 10. The members of each House shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained and paid by the State,
in which they shall be chosen.

Sect. 11. The enacting stile of the laws of the United States shall be. "Be it enacted by the Senate and Representatives in
Congress assembled."

Sect. 12. Each House shall possess the right of originating bills, except in the cases before mentioned.

Sect. 13. Every bill, which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be
presented to the President of the United States for his revision: if, upon such revision, he approve of it, he shall signify his
approbation by signing it: But if, upon such revision, it shall appear to him improper for being passed into a law, he shall return
it, together with his objections against it, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large
on their journal and proceed to reconsider the bill. But if after such reconsideration, two thirds of that House shall,
notwithstanding the objections of the President, agree to pass it, it shall together with his objections, be sent to the other
House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of the other House also, it shall become a
law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons
voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the
President within seven days after it shall have been presented to him, it shall be a law, unless the legislature, by their
adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

ARTICLE  VII

Sect. 1.
The Legislature of the United States shall have the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises;

  • To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States;
  • To establish an uniform rule of naturalization throughout the United States;
  • To coin money;
  • To regulate the value of foreign coin;
  • To fix the standard of weights and measures;
  • To establish Post-offices;
  • To borrow money, and emit bills on the credit of the United States;
  • To appoint a Treasurer by ballot;
  • To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
  • To make rules concerning captures on land and water;
  • To declare the law and punishment of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and the punishment of
    counterfeiting the coin of the United States, and of offenses against the law of nations;
  • To subdue a rebellion in any State, on the application of its legislature;
  • To make war;
  • To raise armies;
  • To build and equip fleets;
  • To call forth the aid of the militia, in order to execute the laws of the Union, enforce treaties, suppress insurrections,
    and repel invasions;

And to make all laws that shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers
vested, by this Constitution, in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof;

Sect. 2. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against the United States, or any of them; and in
adhering to the enemies of the United States, or any of them. The Legislature of the United States shall have power to declare
the punishment of treason. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses. No attainder of
treason shall work corruption of blood, nor forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

Sect. 3. The proportions of direct taxation shall be regulated by the whole number of white and other free citizens and
inhabitants of every age, sex and condition, including those bound to servitude for a term of years, and three fifths of all other
persons not comprehended in the foregoing description, (except Indians not paying taxes) which number shall, within six
years after the first meeting of the Legislature, and within the term of every ten years afterwards, be taken in such manner as
the said Legislature shall direct.

Sect. 4. No tax or duty shall be laid by the Legislature on articles exported from any State; nor on the migration or importation
of such persons as the several States shall think proper to admit; nor shall such migration or importation be prohibited.

Sect. 5. No capitation tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the Census hereinbefore directed to be taken.

Sect. 6. No navigation act shall be passed without the assent of two thirds of the members present in the each House.

Sect. 7. The United States shall not grant any title of Nobility.

ARTICLE VIII

The Acts of the Legislature of the United States made in pursuance of this Constitution, and all treaties made under the
authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the several States, and of their citizens and inhabitants; and the
judges in the several States shall be bound thereby in their decisions; any thing in the Constitutions or laws of the several
States to the contrary notwithstanding.

ARTICLE IX

Sect 1.
The Senate of the United States shall have power to make treaties, and to appoint Ambassadors, and Judges of the
Supreme Court.

Sect. 2. In all disputes and controversies now subsisting, or that may hereafter subsist between two or more States,
respecting jurisdiction or territory, the Senate shall possess the following powers. Whenever the Legislature, or the Executive
authority, or lawful agent of any State, in controversy with another, shall by memorial to the Senate, state the matter in
question, and apply for a hearing; notice of such memorial and application shall be given by order of the Senate, to the
Legislature or the Executive authority of the other State in Controversy.

The Senate shall also assign a day for the appearance of the parties, by their agents, before the House. The Agents shall be
directed to appoint, by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a Court for hearing and determining the matter in
question. But if the Agents cannot agree, the Senate shall name three persons out of each of the several States; and from the
list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that
number not less than seven nor more than nine names, as the Senate shall direct, shall in their presence, be drawn out by lot;
and the persons whose names shall be so drawn, or any five of them shall be commissioners or Judges to hear and finally
determine the controversy; provided a majority of the Judges, who shall hear the cause, agree in the determination.
If either party shall neglect to attend at the day assigned, without showing sufficient reasons for not attending, or being
present shall refuse to strike, the Senate shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the Clerk of the Senate
shall strike in behalf of the party absent or refusing. If any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such Court;
or shall not appear to prosecute or defend their claim or cause, the Court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce judgment.

The judgment shall be final and conclusive. The proceedings shall be transmitted to the President of the Senate, and shall be
lodged among the public records, for the security of the parties concerned. Every Commissioner shall, before he sit in
judgment, take an oath, to be administered by one of the Judges of the Supreme or Superior Court of the State where the
cause shall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question according to the best of his judgment, without
favor, affection, or hope of reward."

Sect. 3. All controversies concerning lands claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions, as they
respect such lands shall have been decided or adjusted subsequent to such grants, or any of them, shall, on application to the
Senate, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding controversies
between different States.

ARTICLE X

Sect. 1.
The Executive Power of the United States shall be vested in a single person. His stile shall be, "The President of the
United States of America;" and his title shall be, "His Excellency." He shall be elected by ballot by the Legislature. He shall hold
his office during the term of seven years; but shall not be elected a second time.

Sect. 2. He shall, from time to time, give information to the Legislature, of the state of the Union: he may recommend to their
consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary, and expedient: he may convene them on extraordinary occasions. In
case of disagreement between the two Houses, with regard to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as
he thinks proper: he shall take care that the laws of the United States be duly and faithfully executed: he shall commission all
the officers of the United States; and shall appoint officers in all cases not otherwise provided for by this Constitution. He shall
receive Ambassadors, and may correspond with the supreme Executives of the several States. He shall have power to grant
reprieves and pardons; but his pardon shall not be pleadable in bar of an impeachment. He shall be commander in chief of the
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States.

He shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during his
continuance in office. Before he shall enter on the duties of his department, he shall take the following oath or affirmation, "I
___________ solemnly swear, (or affirm) that that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States of
America." He shall be removed from his office on impeachment by the House of Representatives, and conviction in the
supreme Court, of treason, bribery, or corruption. In case of his removal as aforesaid, death, resignation, or disability to
discharge the powers and duties of his office, the President of the Senate shall exercise those powers and duties, until another
President of the United States be chosen, or until the disability of the President be removed.

ARTICLE  XI

Sect. 1.
The Judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as shall,
when necessary, from time to time, be constituted by the Legislature of the United States.

Sect. 2. The Judges of the Supreme Court, and of the Inferior Courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior. They
shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in
office.

Sect. 3. The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall extend to all cases arising under laws passed by the Legislature of the
United States; to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Consuls; to the trial of impeachments of officers
of the United States; to all cases of Admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies between two or more States, (except
such as shall regard Territory or Jurisdiction) between a State and Citizens of another State, between Citizens of different
States, and between a State or the Citizens thereof and foreign States, citizens or subjects.

In cases of impeachment, cases affecting Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall
be party, this jurisdiction shall be original. In all the other cases before mentioned, it shall be appellate, with such exceptions
and under such regulations as the Legislature shall make. The Legislature may assign any part of the jurisdiction above
mentioned (except the trial of the President of the United States) in the manner, and under the limitations which it shall think
proper, to such Inferior Courts, as it shall constitute from time to time.

Sect. 4. The trial of all criminal offences (except in cases of impeachments) shall be in the State where they shall be
committed; and shall be by Jury.

Sect. 5. Judgment, in cases of Impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold
and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States. But the party convicted shall, nevertheless be liable and
subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.

ARTICLE  XII

No State shall coin money; nor grant letters of marque and reprisal; nor enter into any Treaty, alliance, or confederation; nor
grant any title of Nobility.

ARTICLE  XIII

No State, without the consent of the Legislature of the United States, shall emit bills of credit, or make any thing but specie a
tender in payment of debts; nor lay imposts or duties on imports; nor keep troops or ships of war in time of peace; nor enter
into any agreement or compact with another State, or with any foreign power; nor engage in any war, unless it shall be
actually invaded by enemies, or the danger of invasion be so imminent, as not to admit of delay, until the Legislature of the
United States can be consulted.

ARTICLE  XIV

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

ARTICLE  XV

Any person charged with treason, felony or high misdemeanor in any State, who shall flee from justice, and shall be found in
any other State, shall, on demand of the Executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the
State having jurisdiction of the offence.

ARTICLE  XVI

Full faith shall be given in each State to the acts of the Legislatures, and to the records and judicial proceedings of the Courts
and magistrates of every other State.

ARTICLE  XVII

New States lawfully constituted or established within the limits of the United States may be admitted, by the Legislature, into
this Government; but to such admission the consent of two thirds of the members present in each House shall be necessary.
If a new State shall arise within the limits of any of the present States, the consent of the Legislatures of such States shall be
also necessary to its admission. If the admission be consented to, the new States shall be admitted on the same terms with the
original States. But the Legislature may make conditions with the new States, concerning the public debt which shall be then
subsisting.

ARTICLE  XVIII

The United States shall guaranty to each State a Republican form of Government; and shall protect each State against foreign
invasions, and, on the application of its Legislature, against domestic violence.

ARTICLE  XIX

On the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the States in the Union, for an amendment of this Constitution, the
Legislature of the United States shall call a Convention for that purpose.

ARTICLE  XX

The members of the Legislatures, and the Executive and Judicial officers of the United States, and of the several States, shall
be bound by oath to support this Constitution.

ARTICLE  XXI

The ratifications of the Conventions of _____ States shall be sufficient for organizing this Constitution.

ARTICLE  XXII

This Constitution shall be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, for their approbation; and it is the opinion of
this Convention, that it should be afterwards submitted to a Convention chosen, under the recommendation of its legislature, in
order to receive the ratification of such Convention.

ARTICLE  XXIII

To introduce this government, it is the opinion of this Convention, that each assenting Convention should notify its assent and
ratification to the United States in Congress assembled; that Congress, after receiving the assent and ratification of the
Conventions of _____ States, should appoint and publish a day, as early as may be, and appoint a place for commencing
proceedings under this Constitution; that after such publication, the Legislatures of the several States should elect members of
the Senate, and direct the election of members of the House of Representatives; and that the members of the Legislature
should meet at the time and place assigned by Congress, and should, as soon as may be, after their meeting, choose the
President of the United States, and proceed to execute this Constitution."

A motion was made to adjourn till Wednesday, in order to give leisure to examine the Report; which passed in the negative:

New Hampshire, no; Massachusetts, no; Connecticut, no; Pennsylvania, aye: Maryland, aye; Virginia, aye; North Carolina, no;
South Carolina, no;

The House then adjourned till to morrow II OC. (Two O’clock?)
The Illinois Conservative